Purification hospital operating room air conditioning design, into a new perspective, the following is a summary: operating room operating room air purification of air conditioning means of infection control and effectively irreplaceable; A purification air conditioning systems burden to the operating room of a few small it is not appropriate to; The introduction of the concept of pollution, reducing operating room key regions Contamination also reduce high-level operating room air purification; the introduction of local air strengthen the notion that a replacement ceiling air flow, a key region in the operating room one-way flow of air, lowering the operating room key regional air pollution; the new system uses an independent wind early, two filtration efficiency; a set of wind valve to ensure that the indoor pressure distribution. The above new design perspective designed in a hospital operating room in Tianjin purify air-conditioning system was put into operation by the end of 1999, the results were very good.
The hospital air-conditioning task should be to maintain the required indoor climate in the state and remove the air of dust, microorganisms, odor and the harmful gases, the hospital operating room and the air-conditioning is the most important and most difficult task, particularly the control of the air means postoperative infection is crucial because reduced and avoided avoid infection after surgery is the guarantee success in shortening recovery time, reduce medical costs is the key. Other operating room air conditioning service is another feature of the area is small but the air volume, high energy consumption, use of the time of uncertainty and therefore the operating room air conditioning in creating highly clean indoor climate at the same time should pay particular attention to air-conditioning systems, energy saving. Now the author of Tianjin on a hospital operating room design as an example, designers introduced in the design ideas embodied in the design.
One, the operating room Profiles:
The cleansing operation by the Ministry of eight operating room, clean the hall, anesthesia rooms, recovery rooms, rooms of the subsidiary, the Department of Surgery at the first floor of Building medical technicians, operating room without external security structure, the operating room purification - level requirements for 1000 (Level I) 1, 10000 (Class II) 4. 100,000 (III) 3, the operating room design temperature and humidity taken into account physiological characteristics of children, in the year control tn = 24-28 ¡ã C, adjustable spot in the operating room, operating room design relative humidity §¶ n = 50% -60%.
2, the operating room air conditioning duct systems division:
A high-level operating room air-conditioning system to set up independently. The so-called high-level operating room is 1,000 above the operating room, the reason is the high level of operating room air-conditioned air, the same area as the operating room, the air-conditioned 100 operating room air volume is 100,000 3.4 times, 2.25 times the 10,000. Another high-level operating room use frequencies far below the low-level operating room Whether the air-conditioning system is a burden on many high-level operating room or an air-conditioning system burden of a number of high-level and low-level operating room operating room, the air-conditioning systems will be a long time in 'big car Mara' Operation state. For example, an air-conditioning systems afford a 100 operating room and two operating rooms, or 10,000 100,000 4 operating room, as long as high-level operating room use, system design wind of at least greater than the winds at this time of 112% and 84%, or time required for air volume system only system design wind of 47% and 54.3%, but this is due to the use of the operating room from the wind changes VVVF not appropriate manner conditioning, air valve can be used to regulate the manner of air conditioning systems to adapt to changes in wind, but such is not energy-saving mode. So whether from the perspective of energy conservation, or from the use of * and flexibility perspective, the high-level operating room should be 'by the' independent installed air-conditioning systems, air-conditioning systems that purify a corresponding one operating room.
2, the low-level operating room, despite the high-level operating room with air conditioning compared to the small amount of wind, but a burden on the air conditioning systems of several operating room it is not too much, because the use of the hospital's operating room with uncertainty. The more high-grade hospital operating room to meet the special busy conditions, the more. The operating room, while under normal circumstances the use of low coefficient, such as an air conditioning system in the operating room by the burden of a few more, the system often in the 'oversupply' of the state, its energy consumption is bound higher, as reflected by some hospitals' construction, can not afford '. The author believes that the operating room for a low-level air-conditioning system should not be borne by the operating room more than 4-5, but a system too much burden on the operating room can result in the use of non *.
3, the central hall clean, clean corridors, high-level inter-surgery preparation, sterile room should be a separate air-conditioning systems burden to ensure that the operating room is constantly in the outside air environment 'battle' state, that the above parts of air-conditioning in low-level air-conditioning system in the operating room clearly unreasonable. Because the combination of the air-conditioning system, or in the operating room to stop using air supply system when excessive energy consumption, or the operating room can not guarantee the external environment in a controlled climate.
In short, the operation of the air conditioning system of wind principle should be: Run * can adjust flexibly, their own duties in energy conservation. Tianjin Children's Hospital Surgical Department of the Air-Conditioning system is the principle of the division, as shown in the attached diagram. Practice has proved that this way of good results.
3, in determining air flow and organizations:
The Department of Surgery of the hospital air-conditioning design, countries have not yet published the hospital operating room cleaner air conditioning design standards / norms, and the hospital's operating room at home have clean air-conditioning design, relying largely industrial clean room design ideas, but industrial clean rooms to copy the design of the hospital's operating room clean air-conditioning design will bring two questions: 1. high-level clean room excessive wind, in accordance with the "clean room design specifications" (hereinafter referred to as the norm), 100 should be in the operating room ceiling littered with high efficiency filter outlet, a 36m2 air of the operating room for 32400m3 / h ~ 45360m3 / h (corresponding to section 0.25 speed / 0.35m ~ s / s), such a large volume of air supply, air supply power to 17.0kW to 19.0kW, to send, to building space occupied wind pipe, wind noise control system difficulties. ¢Ú. For 1000 the operating room in the same operating room air flow under control of key regional pollution is not ideal, because quote "norm" 1000 following the operating room may be turbulent airflow form of organization. A common practice is uniform throughout the room ceiling set efficient filter outlet, the flow form of organization theory is based on 'the whole room dilution and purification', but according to German standards DIN1946 / 4 on the concept of pollution, such 'room full dilution and purification' weather organization, justified circumstances can make to achieve the same bacteria indoor concentration of pollution for a time, and if breakthrough 'room full dilution and purification' industrial clean room air distribution, will be in the operating room key regions of lower pollution. Against the above problems, the German designer reference Health Weiss operating room air conditioning system experience in the operating room air volume and flow of two organizations, the breakthrough design of industrial clean rooms, the introduction of a lower total air quantity, and strengthen local air, focusing on the bed tables and equipment design concepts region, a in practice as follows:
A, for all levels of the operating room, the whole room breakthroughs are diluted and purifying the concept of the introduction of purification strengthen local perspective, the operating room will be all the outlet were deployed in bed on the top, that is the center with astral lamp boom configuration 'laminar flow air box', according to various non - with Air section size.
B, 100 or 1000 operating room, the introduction of cleaner air coverage area multiplied by the regional section of this regional air velocity of the wind identified. If this works adopted by the 1000 operating room air laminar box cover an area of 2.4m x 2.4m, 0.35m section velocity / s, air supply capacity of 7258m3 / h, and if 100 is used laminar flow air box cover an area of 3 x 3.0m. 0m, section velocity at 0.35m / s, air supply of 11340m3 / h, industrial clean rooms just above the 40% calculation method. Although this design ideas from the German health Weiss operating room air conditioning systems experience, but the project did not use German academics on large area, small volume of air (ie large area, low wind speed), because under domestic hospital-specific circumstances, the use of small wind when objective conditions too harsh, and small wind when airflow not enough momentum to maintain the one-way flow of air, it is difficult to achieve the desired air-conditioning and purifying effect. When wind section 30.35m / s, such as to set up proper outlet, so that air can not only maintain the one-way flow of good, but its one-way flow of less than 0.6m high triage, triage operation bed height below surface elevation.
C, 10,000, 100,000 used in operating room ventilation method to determine the number of air, from 10,000 n = 30 / h, 100,000 from n = 20 / h. Although the number of ventilators value for the "norm" under the limits, but due to the full blast of the site above the bed 'laminar flow air box' send their operation area to the indoor concentration of bacteria in other regions of 50% or surgery regional air pollution in the entire room and diluted net one way of strengthening local air dropped to 0.5 manner. This works with 10,000 100,000 Operating Room 'laminar flow air box' air space were 2.4m x 1.2m and 1.5m x 1.5m, air velocity section are 0.35m / s.
In short, the above design of the hospital's operating room, put into use after the good results achieved by the smaller air volume in the operating room key regions (table bed and regional instruments) formed an operating room than other regional cleaner, healthier climate.
Four of the new wind providing early access Xiao Xiao + fresh air filtration units:
Some of the operating room clean air-conditioning system design, the new filters wind caused problems not sufficient attention, a new wind is often not filtered through independent handled directly with the air conditioning return air mixture, the result of efficiency, high efficiency filter shortened life expectancy, the frequent replacement, the system's operation and maintenance costs increase, even affect the normal use of the operating room. This is because the fresh air and return air mixture ago, the two air dust concentration difference too big, new wind effect even after the beginning of treatment, after the dust concentration (ambition) than 100,000 air conditioning back with the wind in the size of dust concentration 70 times, 100 air-conditioning back to the same size Wind Fan Wai dust concentration in the tens of thousands of times, so that the efficiency and efficient filter without adequate protection. To solve this problem, and we in the new pathway winds install an independent effect early in the validity + fresh air filtration units, the new wind through two filters and then return air mixture, mixing time before new wind and wind back in the same size range (ambition) dust concentrations closer to the real play in the protection of efficiency , the role of efficient filters, and new air filter units early in efficiency filter cleaning, replacement of convenient, efficient and replacement filters compared to less investment and maintenance is simple. The new access road and set up new wind Wind filter unit is to ensure that one advantage of the Fresh Air, because of the new wind will wind filter unit itself equivalent to a 'metering pump'.
5, a scheduled air volume air valve balance:
The Department of Surgery of the regional distribution of pressure to guarantee the effect of large operating room, and how to ensure that reasonable pressure distribution, in addition to calculating the correct balance of air, the air is more important, there should be good wind back the regulation means. Air-conditioning in the past, mainly outside the multi-leaf manual control valve, the valve for air volume of such intensive conditioning is not ideal, in practice a difficult adjustment, debug cycle of problems. To address this problem, Children's Hospital operating room air-conditioning system works transmittal, to the wind by the German company Trox self-determining air flow valve, the valve automatically eliminate wind pressure on the impact of wind, wind Valve external volume adjustment dials, regulation is very convenient, install the valve, the pressure of the operating room Force Adjustment become very simple scene almost without time-consuming pressure adjustment.
Conclusion: In summary, the hospital operating room designers purification and air conditioning engineering, advanced experience from abroad, with the specific situation in China, in the 'lower air volume, improve its effectiveness, energy saving, convenient regulation, enhanced * of' principle, the above five attempts Practice has proved these attempts are basically successful.